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viewpoint of the Muslim in life is the Halaal and the Haraam

The concepts about matters or things could virtually be the same in respect to the sons of Adam (humans) and there are no differences between them apart from differences in tastes and desires. As such in terms of the concepts about things and understanding or knowing the attributes they consist of and the benefits that they contain, then these are one and the same in respect to humankind. As such these do not affect the conduct or behaviour of the human in terms of his elevation or level of decline. So fruits, vegetables and meats in their different and various forms and categories, knowing that the female satisfies the hunger related to procreation, that worship satisfies the hunger related to sanctification, that clothing protects the person from the cold and heat or is worn for reasons of appearance, then all of these concepts about matters or things are the same in respect to the human being because they represent studied knowledge or a comprehension of the attributes of things in respect to them satisfying the hunger or not satisfying it.

As for the concepts about life in terms of it being permissible to seek satisfaction from a certain thing or matter or it not being permissible to do so, then this issue rests outside of the thing or matter itself and outside of the human himself. Rather it is necessary to return to a principle or principles which are used as criteria or a measurement for his actions and a measure for his behaviours. This means returning to his viewpoint in life in respect to undertaking an action or refraining from it. And the viewpoint of the Muslim in life is the Halaal and the Haraam. Therefore whenever a hunger comes to him like that related to the stomach for example and he sees a bowl of food and knows that it is suitable to be eaten due to his knowledge that it is food that is eaten, then he will be inclined towards it, however he will not take it until he has answered the second question: Is it permissible to take benefit from it or is it not? In other words he is asking himself whether it is Halaal or Haraam to take it and eat it. If he then knows that this food contains something that contravenes and is against the measurement that he returns to (for judgment) i.e. his viewpoint in life, like if he knew that is was Najas or that pork was contained within it or that its owner had not given permission for him to take it, then in the like of these circumstances he would refrain from taking it regardless of his inclination towards it and he then attempts to distance this inclination.

This example can be applied to anything that the human comes across in relation to the satisfaction of any hunger from amongst his hungers or desire from amongst his desires and whether it was from the organic hungers like eating and drinking or from the instinctual hungers like sanctification, procreation and survival. And based on this we say: That all of the actions of the human are restricted by measurements, criteria and principles that he believes in and which have been defined by his viewpoint in life i.e. by his Aqeedah (belief about life). And that every action from amongst his actions is determined and runs in accordance to his concept about life in terms of proceeding to undertake the action or refraining from it, whether this action was a fundamental one or not, great or lowly and of high value or of low worth. So his Aqeedah is the fundamental principle (or basis) for his thoughts and concepts about life and all of the systems of life emanate from it. His viewpoint in life is taken from it, in addition to the principles, criteria and measurements that distinguish the Khabeeth (filth/bad) from the Tayyib (wholesome/good) and the wheat from the chaff.

This is what distinguishes the human from all other living creatures and this is what elevates him above them. He possesses a mind that comprehends the things and matters that are around him and has a viewpoint in life that can intellectually reason the truthfulness by thoughts, and he believes in these thoughts so that they become concepts for him that define his conduct in life and regulate his behaviours when he goes forth to satisfy his hungers and satisfy his desires or wants. Based upon this the judgement upon this human is made through his actions. This is a judgement made upon what thoughts he believes in and what he has taken as a criterion for himself in addition to what he has made the viewpoint in life. Judgement upon these thoughts requires the presence of principles and given accepted truths that are returned to when issuing a judgement. Therefore the issue here is about understanding a particular human being. Is he elevated or declined? It is a judgement upon his actions and behaviours based on our criteria of concepts and convictions about the elevated actions and behaviours and its associated characteristics like selflessness, goodness, chivalry and loyalty or trustworthiness,

 in addition to good neighbourliness, honesty in transactions, sincerity and perfection amongst other measurements and criteria that people use to ascertain the true reality of actions. Allah (swt) said: Verily Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded (An-Nahl 90). And He (swt) said: Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah , the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveller, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives Zakah; [those who] fulfil their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous(Al-Baqarah 177). The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: (For one person to be guided by Allah by your hands is better for you than all that the sun rises upon) (At-Tabaraani from Abu Raafi’).
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