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the responsibility of the Islamic Khilafah State

That which falls under the responsibility of the State:

 1) The establishment of the Hudood (proscribed punishments):

 It is known that the human being is not an angel or a robot but rather he is a social being who is tested by good and bad. He has the potential to be seduced, for his feet to buckle, for Shaytaan to overcome him so that he commits a violation, a sin or falls short in his fulfilment of an obligation, or aggresses against another. So who then will discipline him or prevent him and make him refrain? So for instance, is it the right of the father to implement the Hudood upon his fornicating or thieving son? None of the Muslims have ever said that this is permitted. This is because it is known from the Deen Bid- Daroorah (By necessity) that the safeguarding of the collective group, dispersing of the disputes, the safeguarding of rights and binding the individuals to abide by the laws, do not fall under the responsibility of the individual but rather they are the task of the person whom has been delegated on behalf of the Muslims to assume the undertaking of these affairs i.e. it is the responsibility of the Nizhaam (regime) and those responsible for implementing the Nizhaam (system). This is because these matters are obligatory upon the Ummah (Moslems Society) as a whole and as such the Muslims appoint a Khalifah on their behalf, to assume on their behalf the implementation of that which has been obliged upon them, in their description as a collective group. So he (the Khalifah deputy) is responsible over the implementation of the speech of Allah (swt):

 The female fornicator and the male fornicator lash each one of them with one hundred lashes (An-Noor 2).

 This is despite those being addressed are the collective of the Muslims and this is similar to His speech (swt):

 And the male thief and female thief cut off their hands (Al-Maa’idah 38).

 And so on. And no individual has the right to enforce the punishment or to apply the Hadd punishment upon any violator unless he has been deputised on behalf of the Muslims as a whole or by a person the Khalifah in his role as the deputy of the Muslims has entrusted to undertake it. Therefore it is the responsibility of the Khalifah to safeguard this section of the general public relationships and what this collective does as.

 Allah (swt) has stated: And you have in Al -Qisaas life, O those of understanding. so that you may attain Taqwa (Al-Baqarah 179).

 2) Taking care of the affairs of the collective group in their description as a collective group:
 It is well known that the collective group (i.e. the society) requires affairs and facilities or utilities that must be established amongst them and taken care of. These have been made obligatory by Allah (swt) upon the Muslims in their description as a collective grouping and He (swt) has made it the responsibility of the caretaker of the collective and not from the responsibilities of the individual or the responsibility of a group of individuals. This is like bringing the public utilities like roads, town squares, schools and hospitals in addition to taking care of the interests like securing the means of communication like telegraphs and mail and the development of the natural resources and distributing them, which includes extracting the natural resources, minerals and oil amongst other materials. This also includes taking care of the wealth and public properties amongst other matters that relate to the facilities, utilities and interests of the people. So is it permissible for the individual or obligatory upon him to engage in the undertaking of these matters without holding any central responsibility over them. Have they been delegated on behalf of the Muslims or been delegated by the deputy of the Muslims (i.e. Khalifah) to undertake the caretaking of these matters? And when we present the components of the individual, then does knowledge over these matters and their undertaking fall within these components and do they represent a part of them? Does the correctness of the individual and his uprightness lead to the regulation of these relationships and does it lead to the securing of these utilities and interests? Or is it essential for there to exist a body or organ that has been delegated and entrusted by the one whom the Muslims have delegated and deputised in order to assume the responsibility of taking care of these affairs and to secure the Muslim utilities.

 3) Protecting the security of the Muslims internally and externally:
 Is it the responsibility of the individual to undertake the safeguarding of the internal security? So that they assume the role of the police and the judiciary and chase after the criminals and those who go outside of the law? Or is there a specific organ or institution that assumes this role? This is because it is known that within any society whatever its level of elevation and the heights it reaches, that there will be those who violate what the people have agreed upon in terms of customs that have formulated laws that regulate their lives. And in the high probability of the existence of this reality, then it is necessary for there to be a specific body or institution present that spreads security and tranquillity within the hearts of the people by securing the safety and protection of them, their properties, possessions, dignities and rights. This in regards to the internal security and as for the external security, it is known as ‘Himaayat Ath-Thugoor’ )Protecting the areas where the enemy can attack from). This is because any political entity that occupies an area of land, with known borders, is surrounded by other entities and a natural result of that within the life of people and societies is for disputes and rivalries to occur, which could lead to the occurrence of wars and strife. It is like someone stated: ‘If you are not a wolf then you will be eaten by wolves’ so any society that is not capable of protecting its borders and vantage points by one means or another will be invaded by another state, divided amongst its neighbours or made to submit to the authority of one of them and there is no escaping from this. This is a sensed witnessed reality today as it has been throughout history, as this is the nature of people and societies. As such, is it from the individual’s components and makeup to be an army and to represent a force that is capable of protecting the borders of the political entity that he is a part of? If it is so, then this was not found in the study of the components of the individual and the factors that achieve his uprightness and soundness. Therefore the one responsible for safeguarding the internal security and protecting the borders externally is the one whom the Muslims have delegated and deputised on their behalf to undertake that which they have entrusted him with, in their description as being a collective grouping. As such he has the responsibility of preparing and readying the police and security institution or organ that safeguards the internal security and he is also responsible for the preparation and readying of the army and to deal with the enemy. This is whilst it is the collective grouping of the Muslims who have been addressed with this in their description as a collective grouping when Allah (swt) addressed them with:

 And prepare against them all that you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy (Al-Anfaal 60).

 4) The carrying of the Da’wah (Islamic Propagation):
 In regards to every ideological society and indeed every individual who carries an idea or an ideology that he believes in, this idea will not be able to remain imprisoned within the one who holds it. This is because the ideology carries within its folds and indeed its bases the obligation to spread it and the explanation of the manner of carrying it to the people, in addition to the manner of establishing it in the reality of their lives. This is because these are the components of any ideology as we have previously mentioned and explained where we stated that the ideology is an intellectual Aqeedah from which a system emanates. And we have also stated that it is a Fikrah (thought) about living and a Tareeqah (method) of implementation.

 The Fikrah (thought) comprises of:  a) The Aqeedah (belief) of the ideology (Mabda’).
 b) The treatments or solutions that emanate from the ideology’s Aqeedah that treat the problems of life.
 c) The carrying of the Da’wah (Islamic Propagation) to embrace the ideology and believe in it.

 As for the Tareeqah (method) for its implementation and its preservation then we have stated that this comprises of:  a) The preservation or safeguarding of the Aqeedah of the ideology.
 b) The manner of implementing every treatment or solution from amongst the solutions that it has come with.
 c) The manner of carrying the invitation to it to the people (or mankind).

 The role of implementing the Ahkaam (rulings) of the Tareeqah, the implementation of its treatments and solutions, the undertaking of the burdens of the Da’wah (Islamic Propagation), spreading it to the people and carrying it to the entire world is entrusted to the Khalifah and the institutions or apparatus that he appoints to deal with these matters, in his description and capacity as the deputy of the Muslims.

 As such it is the ideology (Mabda’)that has obliged the carrying (of the Da’wah (Islamic Propagation)) upon us and has defined and specified a manner for undertaking it and it has obliged those carrying it to make the people submit to its rulings and its treatments and that is only accomplished by way of Al-Jihaad. The ideology did not leave the style or way of spreading it to the individuals and their activities. This is the nature of the ideology and a basis from its fundamental bases is the obligation to spread it in accordance to a defined manner that it has specified. The carrying of the Da’wah (Islamic Propagation) to the people represents the basis of the relationship of the Muslims as a collective grouping with others from amongst the entities of disbelief that surround and neighbour the Muslims. So the foreign policy or the taking care of and fostering of the affairs of Islam and the Muslims externally, which represents the relationship that exists between the Muslims and the entities of disbelief, is also taken charge of and entrusted to the deputy of the Muslims who acts on their behalf i.e. the Khalifah.

 It is the ideology itself that has divided the world in to two households and lands, Daar-ul-Islam (The household and land of Islam) which is represented by the Khalifah and the Daar-ul-Harb or Kufr (Land of war or disbelief) which is represented in all of the entities of disbelief. And it has divided these entities of disbelief further into the States that have a covenant (Mu’aahadah), those that are at war in actuality (Harb Fi’lan) and those who are at war by rule (Harb Hukman) and the relations of the Muslims with them are defined in accordance to what these categorisations dictate and oblige.

 This is in line with what the Messenger of Allah (saw) proceeded upon throughout his life in regards to regulating the foreign relations, from the time that he laid down the very first constitution in Al- Madinah, until the time that he was raised up to Ar-Rafeeq Al-‘Aalaa. So he made treaties on behalf of the Muslims, he took care of the non-Muslims under his authority and took the Jizyah from them and he made war with the neighbouring political entities and States in order to break the material obstacles that stood in the way of the spread of the authority of Islam upon the people. His noble Sahaabah (rah) followed the same manner of politics and this continued until the last days of the Islamic State. So, is this the task of the individual and does it fall under the components that he is composed of or under the bases upon which his uprightness is established?

 The above is a quick glance comparing the components that makeup the individual, to those that the society comprises of. However those who are not clear about this and are following the wrong path, may require many more details and clarifications until they can comprehend that the method of reforming the individual in order to reform the society is an approach that will never lead to the accomplishment of what they are working for. It will never lead to the correction and reformation of the society, the resumption of the Islamic way of life and the revival of the Ummah (Moslems Society) to the level that is befitting for her. This is because their method begins with the individual and ends with the individual and does not go beyond that at all.

 The single reason that has led to this great error is no more than an adoption of a bad understanding and the lack of a full comprehension of the reality that they wish to reform and correct i.e. they did not comprehend the components of the individual and the components of the society (and their differences). For this reason we hope that they revise their view in relation to understanding this reality and indeed it is easy to be able to distinguish between the reality of a society in a village with one thousands inhabitants and the reality of a ship with thousands of passengers. This is because the village is a complete society whilst the passengers upon a boat are a collection of individuals who do not represent a society.

 And had the reality been as they have assumed and the society been merely a collection of individuals, then many societies would exist within a single society and the unity would be split up due to all of the political entities that would arise built upon this understanding.

 And it is necessary to be aware of the fundamental principle that is required when issuing a judgement upon any matter and this is that it is essential to understand the reality and to gain a deep understanding of it before issuing the judgement and providing treatments and solutions for it.

 And this issue was not restricted to one group alone from amongst those movements working to revive the Ummah (Moslems Society) but rather it affected numerous groups with different names and different methods. All of them proceeded along a single path that drew them to the incorrect understanding of the reality of the society and despite carrying different names and numerous methodologies none of them escaped from the line that we have finished discussing above. This is because there are not many differences between them and all of them revolve around the components that the individual is composed of and the paths leading to his uprightness. This is whether they are from those who have focused on the acts of ‘Ibaadah alone and prohibited the political work by calling to turning to Allah only through ‘Ibaadah, or they are from those who look at all aspects of the individual or those who view that the method of reforming the individual inevitably leads to the correcting of the society and the establishment of the entity and State that will take hold of the responsibilities of the collective and restore their honour and glory.

 It is strange in regards to them that they talk about reforming the society and establishing the State without possessing any clear vision about the well being or uprightness of the society because they did not fully comprehend its composition and they did not possess even the least of an image of the State that they wished to establish. All of this is despite the rational principle and indeed the obvious rationally accepted fact that states: ‘The one who does not possess a matter or a thing cannot give it (to others)’.

 As for the doubt in regards to the attention paid to the affair of the Daa’iyah (advocate) and the one who carries the thought of reform and works for it, then it can be added to say that the Daa’iyah or the one carrying the thought would represent a copy that is in line and harmony with the origin of what he carries from the Aqeedah and the thoughts that he is calling to. Otherwise he would represent only a portion of what he carries and he would cause offense to that which he is calling to. Therefore the issue revolves around the upright and believing structures and there is no room to target or exposes individual people or the behaviour of individuals. Therefore it revolves around which path they are following, the path of reforming the society or the path of reforming the individual? As for the obligation of the Daa’iyah being an upright believer then this is a matter that is given and accepted and I do not believe that there is a Kutlah, Jamaa’ah or Hizb that does not take care and pay attention to the culturing of their members so that they are committed in deed to what they are calling (others) to and accept into their ranks those who are not in harmony with their thought and their Da’wah (Islamic Propagation).

 Similarly it is necessary to regulate the conduct of the individuals by way of a culture that the Hizb, Jamaa’ah or Takattul has adopted and due to this it is not valid or correct for this doubt to be used by some to hide behind. This is like when it is said: ‘The Sahaabah (rah) used to say: We used to learn ten Aayaat and that by Allah we would not go past them and move on until we had acted by them’. And here I would like to ask: When were the Shari’ah Takaaleef (legal responsibilities) revealed and where are the actions and Takaaleef that have appeared in the Makkan Surahs? But rather the intended meaning of this statement from the Sahaabah (rah) is that they did not move on past these Aayaat until they had understood their meanings, memorised them and applied them to the reality in front of them that they had been revealed to treat whether they dealt with attacking the thoughts of disbelief, the leaders of disbelief or the corruption of the relationships existing between the disbelievers, as these were the subject areas that the Surahs and Aayaats were dealing with.

 Therefore the issue at hand is related to which path these believing and committed structures and parties proceeded along and did they proceed along the course of reforming the individual or the course of reforming the society? This therefore is the issue. As for those who call to the reformation of the individual in terms of his Aqeedah and ‘Ibaadah in order to arrive to the correction of the society and the building of the Ummah (Moslems Society), the establishment of the State, whilst at the same time forbidding themselves from undertaking the political work and accounting the rulers, then their calamity was greater:

 Allah (swt) says:

 Will they not reflect (and contemplate) upon the Qur’aan or are their locks upon the hearts (Qur'an Surat Muhammad: 24).
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Main components of moslems society

Our Society:
The society that we are living in today is a society like any other and its components are the same as any society and its elements are the same as any other society. And what reforms any society will reform it and what corrects any society will correct it. However just as we have stipulated the obligation of knowing the reality that we want to judge upon and treat, it is also necessary to understand everything about it and to understand its circumstances, conditions and everything that is related to it. As such it is necessary to apply this principle upon this reality i.e. upon our society that we want to treat.

 Therefore it is not sufficient to know its components and elements so that we can go immediately to treat it. Rather it is essential to understand our society in a manner that removes any and every obscurity and throws a revealing light upon all of its aspects and dimensions. After the attainment of this understanding, will it be able to be said that the society is still established upon unified thoughts and sentiments and that the customs and traditions are still present?

 Or have they disappeared and been replaced by new customs, norms and traditions? And does the system that is applied upon it and safeguards its political unity, emanate from the Aqeedah of the people or does it oppose their Aqeedah and contradict it? And was the executive body delegated on behalf of the Ummah (Moslems Society) to apply this system upon them or do they represent a group who has merely grabbed the reins of power and authority? And is this authority tied to others acting as an agent to them or is it sincere to itself and its society? Or has everything faded away and our society no longer has any distinguishing characteristics or unity that gathers it together, where its thought is not in harmony with its emotion and its system does not have a relationship with its Aqeedah? All of this in regards to knowing and understanding the reality from all of its dimensions.

 As for understanding its circumstances, conditions and all that relates to it, then all that happens and exists in our society in terms of circumstances and conditions must be paused at to examine, in order to explain them and remove the obscurities. This is so that we can understand them and remove all of the obstacles that stand in the way of providing a treatment to the society or prevent it from moving forward.

 Our society and I mean the society that currently exists in the Islamic world, is like any society as it is established upon a collection of people who have permanent relationships existing between them, which is taken care of by the Nizhaam (system/regime) and its unity is safeguarded by it. However it is noticeable that in this society specifically the unity of thoughts within it has faded away in spite of the unity of the Aqeedah which is supposed to be the intellectual principle from which all of the concepts and thoughts emanate and are built upon. However this Aqeedah has not been taken as an intellectual basis and no longer acts as the basis of thinking for the majority of the people including their thinkers and educated. It is an Aqeedah that the people have inherited and it was not the result of a purposeful process of thinking and examination and was not the result of thinking and a rational conviction. In addition they killed it in terms of being a political Aqeedah and let it remain living as a spiritual Aqeedah alone. However it still remains pure and clear in its fundamentals despite obscurities that have become attached to some of its parts in addition to some distortions. This was especially the case after it had been distanced from the reality of life represented in the relationships between the people and the systems that governed the society and it was restricted to the spiritual dimension and distanced completely from the area of politics. For this reason it remained as a spiritual Aqeedah within the breasts of the people and it remained the basis for their religious beliefs and what related to the relationships of the individuals with their creator in terms of ‘Ibaadaat (acts of worship) or in terms of the relationship of the people with themselves in terms of Akhlaaq (morals) or their clothing and foodstuffs. For these reasons the effect of the Aqeedah remained restricted to the individual and it had no relationship to the life of the people, their (societal) relationships or the societal systems or the taking care of the (societal) affairs of the people. This restriction was complete, with the exception of some parts of the social system related to marriage, divorce, inheritance and Nafaqah (spending upon those you are responsible for) which became known as the Law of personal circumstance. Therefore the Islamic Aqeedah remained the source for this law whilst its affect ended in respect to the thinking of the people in regards to the affairs of the society and its issues.

 Since the time when the society lost this intellectual basis (their Aqeedah), it has not carried a political Aqeedah which would allow the people to build their thoughts upon it and from which the systems of life emanate. This was despite the spread of certain philosophical opinions and capitalist and socialist thoughts and despite the presence of a group of thinkers and educated people who were imprinted with these opinions and thoughts. For this reason a unity of thoughts did not remain in the society and the productive way of thinking amongst the people became absent. At the same time, the environments were poisoned by some thoughts, like the thoughts of freedom, democracy and socialism amongst other opinions, thoughts, rulings and legislations that had no relationship to the Aqeedah of the people. Therefore we are certain that the unity of thoughts in the society has been broken up and disappeared.

 As for the unity of the feelings and sentiments, which is the third basis from amongst the components of the society, then we have explained that the Mashaa’ir (feelings) are the natural result of the thoughts that the people carry and what is concentrated deep within them in terms of concepts. They get angry when these concepts are contravened and are happy when they exist and are pleased by what agrees with them. This therefore is the reality of the sentiments that the people hold. Therefore built upon the absence of the unity of thought and existence of differing concepts, the unity of the sentiments also became absent. And due to the difference in the thoughts and their contradictions, the sentiments and sensations also became different and there no longer remained that which brought together the sentiments and feelings of the people with the exception of those matters that still remained connected to their Aqeedah like being Muslims for instance. As for other than that, then their sentiments were not stirred or their anger kindled when they saw the violation of the prohibitions of Allah or when they witnessed the ruling by other than what Allah (swt) has revealed or the existence of the open calls to atheism or licentiousness amongst many other matters. Indeed the situation has even reached the extent in some cities that celebrations and mourning (events of happiness and sadness) would take place at the very same time within the very same building without any of them taking into account the feelings of the others.

 In the absence of the unity of the thoughts and the sentiments within the society, the ‘Urf ‘Aamm (public custom) was also absent, with the exception of some partialities. This is because the ‘Urf ‘Aamm (prevailing general custom) is only established upon the basis of a thought that the people believe in and affirm to the exclusion of other thoughts and the masses of the people commit to it like the concepts which regulate their conducts. They are concentrated within the people deeply and the feelings of anger and pleasure are moved in response to them until they reach the level of absolute conviction that has become a fully recognised norm (that the people are accustomed to). The origin of the thought has been forgotten or the evidence that it was extracted from or the principle that it was built upon it. Had this not been the case, then the people’s conduct would have been regulated in accordance to it. It would have become a law which the people collectively would not accept to be violated and would be angry about any violation of it. This is the type of norm that is deep rooted and has become concentrated within and amongst the people thus becoming an ‘Urf ‘Aamm (Public general custom) between the masses of the people.

 So for example: Abu Hurairah (ra) related from the Messenger (saw) that he said: Whoever believes in Allah and the last day must honour his guest. (Al-Bukhaari, Muslim, Imaam Ahmad, An-Nasaa’iy, Ibn Majah).

 This statement is a thought and its source is the Wahi (revelation) that the one who said it believes in and is followed by those who believe in him. This is because it is a thought which its reality has been comprehended and Tasdeeq (affirmation) has occurred in respect to it, so that it has become a concept that regulates the conduct of the one who believes in it. As time progressed the issue of honouring the guest became a normal and regular matter, it proceeded with the people and regulated them so that it became an ‘Aadah (norm). Additionally this norm encompassed the masses of the people and they became accustomed to this matter until it began to run in their veins and to the point where nobody dared to violate it. If someone did violate it then he would be exposed to the anger, scorn and indignation of the people and he would be maligned by a number of accusations that relate to his dignity.

 However if we were to ask the masses from amongst these people about the evidence for this ‘Urf (custom), the thought that it is built upon and the source of this thought, then you would not find except a very small number of people who are capable of providing its evidence, know its origin and the Hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (saw) that it is based on. In addition, our society today is not governed by an ‘Urf (custom), thoughts do not prevail over it and their sentiments are not shaken by anything. This is the clear reality that is necessary to know and understand in relation to our society before laying down a plan for its cure and treatment.

 In relation to the Nizhaam (system/regime), it is the fourth basis from amongst the components of the society and the fundamental main pillar for safeguarding its unity and for looking after its affairs.

 So the main task of the Nizhaam in our current society is to preserve the fragmentation and division of the Ummah (Moslems Society), by ensuring the continuance of these parts which are represented in scattered political entities. This is in regards to the statement that states that the Nizhaam represents the protector and safeguard of the unity of the society, however in our reality, it represents the very opposite of that.

 The regime in its current true reality and it relation to its connection to the Aqeedah of the people, we can say that it is a regime that has been imposed upon the people, it has no relationship to the Aqeedah of the people and it does not emanate from their customs, concepts and thoughts. Rather it is a capitalist system that has been imposed upon them and despite this they have nothing but obedience to the regime and abide by it. Their interests are tied to it, their affairs are governed by its dictates and the people have had their identities and residency defined by it and by the piece of land that they have found themselves residing in. So it has been imposed upon them and at the same time they are committed to its rules without paying any regard to whether they are in agreement with their thoughts or the beliefs that they believe in. For this reason we find that the vast majority of the people point the finger of blame towards the standing regime and consider it to be the source of all corruption and the basis of every misfortune. They wish for it to be changed and indeed perform supplication to Allah (swt) for Him to change it and remove it from being over their necks. This is despite the absence of an alternative in their minds and indeed they have not even thought seriously about a replacement and alternative and this even includes those who are actively calling for the change. This is because as we have already mentioned, they do not have an intellectual principle (basis) to launch from and to take their thoughts and systems from. They also do not possess a productive way of thinking that they can utilise to understand the reasons and causes of the corruption, to define the objectives and to present an alternative or replacement. Therefore we find many and many indeed of these movements and political parties who are working towards changing the current standing regime and yet until now they have not placed within their programmes or methodologies an alternative that they want to change it to.

 Uprisings, coups and revolutions have taken place in the Islamic world targeting the change of the regime and even many of these revolutionaries and coup makers have reached the position of ruling.

 However despite this they were unable to change the system because they did not have an alternative. If any changes took place then they were merely to solve an immediate problem, or to bring a new matter that was taken from another society or they implemented a matter in response to the slogans that had been raised during the revolution. This is whilst the hero of the revolution who became the new president would feel a great deal of pride when changing the constitution of the State that he governs. He would be proud that the constitution which he had chosen for the people and imposed upon them was extracted and taken from the different constitutions of at least fifty-one states!

 This therefore is the description of the three main components of our society, the thoughts, feelings and the systems. And it is a description of what has affected and caused our society to become like the water that has no colour and the smell that has no flavour. These are its fundamental diseases that have paralyzed its recovery, made its body sick and broken its ribs. If only the matter had remained restricted to this however the side (non-fundamental) diseases which have arisen from these fundamental diseases are no less than them in regards to the dangers that they pose.
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capable of providing the Islamic opinion for every issue, incident or condition

The Qur’aan was revealed and descended upon our Messenger (saw) in parts over a period that lasted twenty-three years. It was not revealed in one go but rather in accordance to circumstances, realities and conditions. Based on this it is obligatory upon any group that works to revive the Ummah (Moslems Society) to live with the events, realities and conditions so that it is capable of providing the Islamic opinion for every issue, incident or condition. Following and pursuing the realities and events necessitates knowledge and understanding of the reality or incident in a manner that enables the person to encompass what it includes of circumstances, conditions and what is related to it terms of reasons and causes in order for his opinion or judgement to be correct or close to correct. This demands a knowledge of our society firstly and then knowledge about the forces that are involved in the struggle within it, including the states that are competing for its resources and to spread their control and influence over it. We have strong evidence in the story of Abu Bakr (ra) when he wagered the disbelievers of Quraish in regards to the results of the war that was waging between the Romans and Persians in addition to what the Qur’aan mentioned in relation to that, in regards to the obligation of pursuing the realities and events. It is evident that the Messenger of Allah (saw) and those with him represented a political Kutlah (bloc) which was aware of its reality and knowledgeable of its society, just as it was aware of all that surrounded it. So here we have Abu Bakr (ra) wagering upon a military and political matter and in relation to the two most powerful States in the world at that time, the Persians and Romans, a dialogue that was supported by the statement of Allah (swt): Alif, Lam, Meem. The Romans have been defeated.

 In the nearest land. But they, after their defeat, will overcome (be victorious). Within three to nine years. To Allah belongs the command before and after. And that day the believers will rejoice.

 With the victory of Allah. He gives victory to whom He wills, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful. (Ar-Rum 1-5).

 As for the internal situation, then how greatly was the reality exposed when the disbelievers of Makkah gathered to discuss and scheme amongst themselves and to draw out practical plans, whilst Allah (swt) was monitoring every move and statement they made. This was highlighted when the chiefs of Makkah gathered in Dar un-Nadwah and consulted one another in regards to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and his Da’wah (Islamic Propagation). They discussed the issue of what they should say about him to the people and how they should respond and provide answers to the Arab delegations and visitors in the marketplace, the market of ‘Ukaazh. The meeting was led by Al-Waleed Bin Al- Mugheerah the Sayyid (Master) of Bani Makhzoum who was also known as the Sayyid of Makkah. So they said: ‘O Abu-l-Waleed what should we say to the people?’ He replied: ‘Make your suggestions so that I can hear them’. So they began to suggest their opinions and Al- Waleed would reject them because they did not fit the reality. When they had run out of suggestions they then said: ‘You tell us then’. So he brought his eyebrows together and he began to scratch his head and pick his brain whilst walking back and forth across the space of the gathering place until he arrived at his words of deception. So he said that we will say that he is Saahir Bayyaan (A sorcerer or magician of words) and that by his speech a person is separated from his people and family.

 As soon as this had taken place behind doors the revelation descended informing the Messenger of Allah (saw) of their scheming. So the Aayaat of the Qur’aan were revealed exposing their conspiracy and what had taken place amongst them in amazing detail.

 Allah (swt) said: Leave Me with the one I created alone. And to whom I granted extensive wealth. And children present [with him]. And spread out [everything] before him, easing [his life]. Then he desires that I should add more. No! Indeed, he has been toward Our verses obstinate. I will cover him with arduous torment. Indeed, he thought and deliberated. So may he be destroyed [for] how he deliberated. Then (again) may he be destroyed [for] how he deliberated. Then he considered [again]. Then he frowned and scowled. Then he turned back and was arrogant. And said: "This is not but magic imitated [from others]. This is not but the word of a human being. I will cast him into Saqar (hellfire). (Al-Mudaththir 11-26).

 This is the level of Wa’iy (awareness) that is required in relation to the events and realities so that we are able to provide the ruling of Allah upon it or so that we are able to make clear to the Ummah (Moslems Society) the incidents that are occurring amongst them, or the conspiracies that are being hatched against them, or the obstacles that are being placed in front of the Da’wah (Islamic Propagation), whether these are coming from the sons of the Ummah (Moslems Society) themselves, or from the enemies of the Ummah (Moslems Society) through the hands of the sons of the Ummah (Moslems Society) or directly from her enemies.

 We have stated that the society is composed of its public general custom (’Urf ‘Aamm) and the system. Just as it is an obligation for the Kutlah (party bloc) to engage and deal with the corrupt thoughts and the prevailing events in order to explain their corruption and reveal their falsehood, and to distance them from the life of the people and their thinking, it must also work to generate its thought within the society to shape a public opinion upon it and to form the public and general custom (‘Urf ‘Aamm) in accordance to what the thought dictates. This is what is has to engage with just as it has to engage with the second pillar from amongst the components of the society, meaning the standing current system or regime that controls and regulates the relationships amongst the people and is responsible for taking care of their affairs. It is obligatory to reveal and expose its corruption and the falsity of its solutions and treatments, its bad caretaking of the people’s affairs and its contravention and opposition to their Aqeedah and the rulings that accompany it. The bases that the regime and system are established upon need to be demolished whilst presenting the alternative and establishing the evidence for its truthfulness and correctness. The work presents the straight line against the crooked until the people lose their confidence in the regime and their support for those who implement it is taken away.

 This is one angle and from another angle the Kutlah has to assume the responsibility of exposing the reality of those agents that the Kaafir has established over the necks of the people to protect his interests, implement his system and to spread his culture. This is so that their treachery to their Ummah (Moslems Society) can be proven and their agency and servitude to their enemy can be established. This would lead to the Ummah (Moslems Society) separating from them and indeed it would lead to them helping the Kutlah to get rid of them and take them away from the position of ruling. This is what we mean by Al-Kifaah As-Siyaasiy (Political struggle) and this in compliance to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the application of his method which the Qur’aan utilised in this field and area. At the same time as it was making clear and evident the corruption of the Nizhaam (system) it was also making clear and evident the corruption of the rulers and their tyranny. Some of them were attacked by name, some were attacked by mentioning their characteristics and some were attacked due to a statement they made or an action they undertook.

 So Allah (swt) mentioned by name: Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab (an uncle of the Prophet), and perish he! His wealth will not benefit him or that which he gained. He will [enter to] burn in a Fire of [blazing] flame. And his wife [as well] - the carrier of firewood. Around her neck is a rope of [twisted] fiber. (Al-Masad).

 This was declared in spite of his status and the position of honour he held amongst Bani Haashim and the Quraish and no less was said in regards to the Sayyid of Bani Makhzoum (Al-Waleed Bin AL- Mugheerah) as quoted above, beginning from Aayah 11 in Surah Al- Mudaththir : Leave Me with the one I created alone. And to whom I granted extensive wealth.

 Until Aayah 26: I will cast him into Saqar (hellfire).

 And he is also mentioned in Surah Nun (Wal Qalami Wa Maa Yasturoon): Cruel, moreover an illegitimate pretender. Because he is a possessor of wealth and children. When Our verses are recited to him, he says: "Legends of the former peoples." We will brand him upon the snout (nose). (Al-Qalam 13 - 16).

 It also referred to Al-Akhnas Bin Shuraiq in Surah Al-‘Alaq: No! If he does not desist, We will surely drag him by the forelock. A deceitful sinful forelock (Al - ‘Alaq 15- 16).

 Just as it referred to others like in Surah Al -Qiyaamah: Woe to you and woe. Then again woe to you and woe! (34-35 Al-Qiyaamah).

 This then is the Kifaah As-Siyaasiy (political struggle) represented in attacking the system and regime and making clear its corruption, attacking the rulers and exposing their treachery and revealing the plans and schemes of their masters. This political struggle is one of the most important actions that the Kutlah has to engage in because it is the way that the Messenger of Allah (saw) proceeded with and the path that his Rabb (Lord) Jalla Wa ‘Alaa guided him to and commanded us to follow when He (swt) said: Say this is my way, I call to Allah upon clear sight (awareness), I and those who follow me and Subhaanallah and I am n ot from the Mushrikeen (Yousuf 108).

 Therefore the path that leads to the achievement of the desired objectives is inviting to Allah upon clear sight (awareness) with the thought that makes its beliefs, thoughts, rulings, systems and laws evident and clear. It must possess a clear sight (Baseerah) upon its path where every one of its steps is known and the manner of implementing the thought and its Ahkaam is known. There must also be Baseerah (clear sight and awareness) in regards to the reality that the group is working to change where their knowledge encompasses all that is within this reality in terms of beliefs, thoughts and systems in addition to what it contains of customs and traditions. This is so that they can understand and know how to remove them from the people and so that they can firmly ingrain and implant the alternative beliefs, thoughts and rulings.
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intellectual struggle with all the conflicting thoughts existing in the society

As for calling the Ummah (Moslems Society) to a matter that she does not know or recognise, or to seek to move her towards a reality that she is ignorant of whilst seeking confidence, trust and support from her, then this is just pure fantasy and represents additional ignorance. It is also in opposition to the statement of Allah (swt): Say this is my way, I call to Allah upon clear sight (awareness), I and those who follow me and Subhaanallah and I am not from the Mushrikeen (Yousuf 108).
 And it is an obviously accepted and known matter that the one who does not possess a matter or thing cannot give it or pass it on to others. From another angle it is also known, that in one single issue, there can on many occasions exist more than one opinion and that it is possible for these differing opinions to reach the point of being contradictory to one another. This can occur in the Usool (fundamentals) and Qawaa’id (principles) just as it can occur in the branches and partialities. For this reason the Kutlah must choose what it needs in terms of Ahkaam, opinions and thoughts which are adopted, proceeded with and worked with to see them implemented and this is so that two opposites or contradictory matters are not brought together. It is certain that the lack of defining the thought will lead to differences and contradictions between the members of the Kutlah and as such this could lead to the scattering of the Kutlah into multiple party blocs or wings and then nothing would bring them together apart from the bloc’s name. This is because it is possible for any opinion to be gathered around and for people to call for it and as such this would lead to the fragmentation of the unity of collective grouping. This therefore is enough reason for the adoption and defining of the thought, goal and path to be an obligatory matter.
 For example, in Islam there are a number of Fiqhi (jurisprudential) opinions related to the person of the Khaleefah which is the first pillar which the application of Islam is established upon and for it to exist within life’s reality. So there is an opinion that states: That any Muslim who fulfils the following Shuroot (conditions) can become a Khaleefah and that it is permissible for the Muslims to entrust him with their affair. These conditions are that he is Muslim, male, of sound mind, mature (in age), free and just and that each of these conditions has an evidence from the Kitaab and the Sunnah, and his lineage, nationality and the extent of his knowledge are not from these. There is another opinion within this issue that states: That it is obligatory for the Khalifah to fulfil these six conditions in addition to the condition that he is from Quraish with the evidence: (The A’immah (Imaams) are from Quraish). There is another third opinion that stipulates in addition to the six conditions that the Khaleefah must be from Aali Bayt (Ahl ul-Bayt/Those of the Nabi’s household (saw)) based on the speech of Allah (swt): Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet's] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification (Al Ahza ab 33).
 There is also a fourth opinion that states that it is obligatory for the Khaleefah to be a Mujtahid so that he is not subservient to the opinion of another Mujtahid so that the full authority does not rest in him. In light of this, if we were to suppose that the Kutlah had not specified her opinion in this issue and as a result all four opinions existed amongst the members of the party bloc, those attached to it and its supporters, and that a large number of the thinkers in it and its leaders gathered around these four opinions and each of them saw that his opinion was the correct one and that it is not permissible to give it up to follow another’s opinion. Then if this party bloc was to reach the position of ruling and was in a position to implement the Ahkaam, thoughts and opinions that they held, which opinion would they then adopt? It is certain that each possessor of an opinion will attempt to oblige his opinion and resist the opinion of the other. And what will the result of this then be? It would lead to the splitting of this Kutlah and disagreement or even fighting between them (and their supporters).
 For this reason and due to the Hukm Shar’iy that states: ‘The Hukm of Allah is one for each (one) person) and it is not many’ the following applies. The Kutlah (party bloc) is analogous and similar to a person and it takes the same ruling as the single person in terms of legal obligation. Therefore it is absolutely not permitted for it to have multiple rulings, opinions, thoughts and beliefs. The necessary adoption of required thoughts, rulings and beliefs represents its true image, it serves as its spirit, its vital existence rests upon it and the confidence and trust of the people is taken upon it by way of clear understanding and the thoughts and opinions of the people are changed in accordance to it. In this way it is capable of generating these thoughts, rulings and beliefs as a public opinion so that they become the adopted customs and norms of the people which represent the fundamental pillars defining the society’s composition. The Kutlah must also engage with the corrupt thoughts and bad practises that are present within the society in order to remove them and to present an alternative to them. This requires knowledge of the corrupted thoughts, incorrect concepts and false beliefs that exist in the society so that they can be refuted, their corruption revealed and their falsity and weakness exposed. It is not valid to over generalise in this and merely state: ‘Kufr (disbelief) is one Millah (religion)’ despite this being correct, but rather it is essential to discuss every thought, opinion or belief in an intellectual manner making clear its error and to reveal its flaws. Yes indeed Kufr is one Millah, this is a firmly established truth and reality as the Deen cannot be partitioned, it is either Islam or it is Kufr and there is nothing in between. However the issue here is not only about affirming a truth but it is rather about removing a corruption, erroneous matter and falsehood by making them clear, establishing argument against them by way of evidence and proof. Allah (swt) says in Al-Qur’aan Al-Kareem: Falsehood cannot approach it from before it or from behind it; [it is] a revelation from a [Lord who is] Wise and Praiseworthy (Al -Fussilaat 42).
 By closely examining the Aayaat of the Qur’aan Al-Kareem we find that it dealt with every existing category of Kufr (disbelief) in a holistic general manner and also in detail, in addition to addressing what every group said or claimed and what they believed in. The Noble Aayaat descended to prove the falsehood of these statements and beliefs. The argument was established with definite evidence, upon the reality that was intended to be demonstrated, so that the belief (Imaan) of those who believed would be established by way of the mind and clear proof. The Noble Qur’aan did not find it sufficient alone to demonstrate the Aqeedah of Islam and explain what it comprised of in terms of truths and glaring proofs merely for the people to be then left to think about that. Rather it struck at the raw nerves of the people and attacked their beliefs, it dispelled their imaginary claims and made clear their foolishness and stubborn rigidity. The Aayaat addressed each grouping according to their reality in terms of the thoughts and beliefs that they held. Therefore it addressed the Arab Mushrikeen (polytheists) according to their different schools of thought and directions in addition to those who followed in them in respect to worshipping idols. It attacked the worship of idols and paganism relentlessly and reproached those who believed in it whilst making clear the feebleness in regards to this and the lack of using their minds, so that they could perceive that these idols and what they worshipped could not bring any harm or benefit. For this reason they were described as being like cattle and indeed even further astray than cattle. They were therefore addressing in a provocative manner and a way that struck at their raw nerves? They have hearts with which they do not understand, they have eyes with which they do not see, and they have ears with which they do not hear. Those are like livestock; rather, they are more astray. It is they who are the heedless (Al-A’araaf 179).
 Similarly the Qur’aan discussed every one of their thoughts whether it addressed those who denied the existence of Allah, or those who took their desires as their deity, or those who worshiped idols for the purpose of gaining closeness to Allah. It explained to them that idols had been worshipped in times that had passed by and mentioned the idols worshipped by the people of Ibraheem (as), how he destroyed them and how they did not possess the power to defend themselves, just as it mentioned the idols worshipped by the people of Nuh (as) by name: And they said: 'Never leave your gods and never leave Wadd or Suwa' or Yaghuth and Ya'uq and Nasr’ (An-Nuh 23).
 Just as some of the idols of Quraish were mentioned by name: So have you then considered al-Lat and al-'Uzza? And Manat, the third - the other one? (An-Najm 19-20).
 In addition it discussed those who believed that they were divine or Godly as demonstrated in the example of the dialogue that took place between Ibraheem (as) and Nimrood or the discussion of Musaa (as) with Fir’awn: Allah (swt) says: Have you not considered the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord [merely] because Allah had given him kingship? When Abraham said, "My Lord is the one who gives life and causes death," he said, "I give life and cause death." Abraham said, "Indeed, Allah brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up from the west." So the disbeliever was overwhelmed [by astonishment], and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people (Al -Baqarah 258).
 Therefore it can be noticed that the Qur’aan Al-Kareem did not restrict its address to one group whilst ignoring others and it did not group them altogether just as it did not find it enough to merely explain its thought, Aqeedah and what it wants from the people.
 Similarly the Qur’aan did not restrict itself to attacking religions and beliefs but went beyond this to address what they were saying, what they were doing and the relationships that regulated their lives. So in the time in which the religions were being attacked it also attacked their actions and characteristics which can be demonstrated in just one short Surah that encompasses all of this: This is like when Allah (swt) stated: In the Name of Allah Ar-Rahmaan Ar-Raheem Have you seen the one who denies the Recompense? For that is the one who drives away the orphan. And does not urge the feeding of the poor. So woe to those who pray. Those who are heedless in their prayer. Those who make a show of their deeds. And withhold any small assistance (Surah Al -Ma’oon).
 And when He (swt) says: Woe to those who give less [than due]. Who when they take a measure from the people they take their full measure. But if they give by measure or weigh out to them, they give less (than due). Do they not think that they will be resurrected? To a mighty day (Al-Mutaffifeen).
 And we should all read from the Noble Qur’aan so that we can ponder over the Aayaat and Suwar that were revealed in Makkah and how they addressed the society and what it contained of beliefs, norms and actions that existed amongst the Arab Mushrikeen. This is in addition to the manner it grabs the attention and the focus towards the Aqeedah of Islam based upon clear argument and proof. It came proving that Allah (swt) is the Khaaliq (creator) of everything, that He (swt) caused the Qur’aan to descend, that He whom there is no Ilaaha other than Him sent His Messenger (saw) with the guidance and the Deen of truth, so that it prevails over every other Deen in spite of the wishes of the disbeliefs, and it came with proof leaving no question or doubt, in regards to the Day of Judgement.
 Let us now also reflect upon how the Aayaat and the Suwar dealt with another category from amongst the disbelievers in respect to the Ahl ul-Kitaab (people of the book). When it was required it would address them together along with the Arab Mushrikeen.
 Allah (swt) says: Those who disbelieved among the People of the Scripture and the polytheists were not to be parted [from disbelief] until there came to them clear evidence. A messenger from Allah reciting purified scriptures (Al -Bayyinah 1-2).
 And His speech (swt): And We have not made the keepers of the Fire except angels. And We have not made their number except as a trial for those who disbelieve - that those who were given the Scripture will be convinced and those who have believed will increase in faith and those who were given the Scripture and the believers will not doubt and that those in whose hearts is hypocrisy and the disbelievers will say, "What does Allah intend by this as an example?" Thus does Allah leave astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And none knows the soldiers of your Lord except Him. And mention of the Fire is not but a reminder to humanity (Al- Mudaththir 31).
 The Qur’aan also addresses the Ahl-ul-Kitaab collectively: Say: O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you - that we will not worship except Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allah. But if they turn away, then say, "Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Him]. (Aali ‘Imraan).
 And it also addresses each one with a specific discussion and established evidence upon the falsehood of what one or the other of these groups said or claimed. It discusses Banu Isra’eel and addresses them with this title ‘Yaa Bani Isra’eel’ when the matter is connected to the claims and issues related to the Jews. It addresses their beliefs, actions, statements, what they invented to their Deen, what they changed in their books, the Anbiyaa’ of Allah that they killed in transgression and hostility against them, in addition to what they would demand from them and how they were tested. They were mentioned to the point that twenty-seven Suwar (Surahs) made mention to them in a host of different contexts and realities.
 And when the Qur’aan Al-Kareem addressed the Christians specifically, then it also mentioned what they invented and fabricated in their Deen and the changes that they made to their beliefs. It addressed their different statements in regards to their beliefs about Allah (swt) and ‘Isa (as): Verily Allah is the third of three (Al-Ma’idah 73). Verily Allah is the Messiah son of Maryam (Al-Maa’idah 17).
 Or those who stated that Al-Maseeh (‘Isa (as)) was the son of Allah. The Aayaat therefore reminded them of what he (as) came to them with, so that the proof and argument was established against them. It narrated to them the story of the birth of ‘Isa (as) in Surah Maryam and Surah Aali ‘Imraan along with the stories of Zakariyaa, Yahyah and Maryam in absolute detail that none could know them except the one who witnessed these events, whilst most if not all of the Arabs were completely ignorant of them.
 Allah (swt) said: These are the news of the unseen we have divinely revealed to you. You did not know of them, neither you nor your people (Hud 49).
 It mentioned the statements of the Jews in respect to ‘Isa (as) the son of Maryam (as) and mentioned what the Jews said about the Christians and what the Christians said about the Jews: And the Jews said: ‘The Christians are not upon anything’ and the Christians said: ‘The Jews are not upon anything’ (Al-Baqarah 113).
 So it did not leave a matter except that it made it evident to them, refuted their arguments, dispelled their imaginary claims and then addressed each of them in turn making them aware that Muhammad (saw) had mentioned each of them in the Kitaab: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and those who are with him are severe against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the planters - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers (Al- Fath 29).
 The Qur’aan did not stop at what was present amongst them but rather went beyond that to address what took place between them in terms of the discussions they had, the statements they were making, the actions they were undertaking and the conspiracies that they were hatching.
 When the Jews made the false claim that Ibraheem was Jewish and the Christians claimed that he (as) was a Christian, the falsity of what they were claiming was exposed in a short sentence: Ibraheem was not a Jew and he was not a Christian but rather he was a Muslim Haneef and he was not of the polytheists (Aali ‘Imraan 67).
 And Allah (swt) also said: O people of the Book why do you argue in regards to Ibraheem whilst the Taurah and the Injeel were not revealed except after him. Will you not then reason?
 This means that the religion of the Jews and the Christians came after Ibraheem (as) and how can it be possible for the one who came before to follow those who came after him. Therefore the Aayah repudiated their argument which represented the heights of foolishness.
 The Aayaat also mentioned what they had done in terms of killing the Anbiyaa’ (Prophets), eating Ribaa (Usury) and Suht (Haraam sources), which they had been forbidden from. It also exposed their conspiracies against the Muslims. This is like the time when they said to a group from amongst them that they should become believers in Islam at the beginning of the day and then become disbelievers at the end of the day, in an attempt to create doubt amongst the Muslims in relation to the truthfulness of the Prophethood of Muhammad (saw), in addition to exposing other conspiracies that they hatched.
 And when a new group or category came into being, which had previously not been present within the society, it addressed them by way of revealing and explaining what lay inside of their hearts. So they were singled out in the Surah named after them: ‘Al- Munaafiqoon’. They were mentioned, their characteristics were described and what they concealed within themselves was disclosed in a number of different places and Suwar of the Qur’aan Al-Kareem. So in the beginning of Surah Al-Baqarah for example the believers were mentioned in four Aayaat, the disbelievers were mentioned in two whilst the Munaafiqoon (hypocrites) were mentioned in thirteen Aayaat. It also mentioned their building of Masjid Ad-Daraar (Harm) and what they had conspired to do with it which led to the Messenger (saw) burning it down. Even if one of them was to utter some words Allah (swt) would expose that like the statement of Allah (swt): And among them is he who says, "Permit me [to remain at home] and do not put me to trial." Unquestionably, into trial they have fallen. And indeed, Hell will encompass the disbelievers. (At-Taubah 49).
 Or His statement (swt): Have you not considered those who were forbidden from private conversation, then they return to that which they were forbidden and converse among themselves about sin and aggression and disobedience to the Messenger? And when they come to you, they greet you with that [word] by which Allah does not greet you and say among themselves, "Why does Allah not punish us for what we say?" Sufficient for them is Hell, which they will [enter to] burn, and wretched is the destination. (Al-Mujaadalah 8).
 This is amongst many other matters addressed by the Qur’aan Al- Kareem, like those which gave encouragement and strength to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the believers when they mentioned the journeys of the previous Prophets and what they encountered on their Da’wah (Islamic Propagation) paths.
 Based on this short summary above, it follows that it is obligatory upon any group that claims to be working to revive the Ummah (Moslems Society) and elevate its status, to proceed along the same path that the Messenger (saw) trod and to launch into an intellectual struggle with all the conflicting thoughts existing in the society. This would not be possible at all unless they possessed complete knowledge and understanding of these thoughts and beliefs, so that they are capable of proving their falsehood and corruption of the opinions. And it is not enough to merely present what they hold and carry because this is contradictory to the method of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the methodology of the Qur’aan of engaging in the intellectual struggle and by countering arguments with proof and evidence.
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Method of Political Struggle to Revive Society

As for the requirement of the group (Jamaa’ah) to be political, then it is for the following reasons: 

a) The aim which the party block came into existence for its sake and the Fard (obligation) that made its existence obligatory is the changing of the society and to move it to a better situation i.e. to revive the society. The society is comprised of a collective grouping of people who are joined together by general or public customs and a system that regulates there affairs however these customs and system in our current reality are far below the appropriate level and as such the objective is to raise the level of these people. Therefore in this situation it is necessary to raise the level of their customs, their thoughts and sentiments and to change the corrupt system that they are regulated by. And it is necessary to replace this with a system that will rectify their affair which agrees with the Aqeedah and thoughts that they carry. It means changing the corrupt political entity, in addition to the thoughts and sentiments that the system is built upon and to then to put down a political entity that is fitting to take its place. Due to this it is necessary for this party bloc (Kutlah) that is working for revival, to be an intellectual and political entity, so that it is capable of achieving its aim and arrive at its goal. And this is due to the principle: ‘The one who does not possess something cannot give it to others’ (Faaqid Ash-Shay’ Laa Yu’teeh). 
b) As for the actions that this party bloc (Kutlah) has to undertake in the process of bringing change and revival, then all of them are political actions. The process of changing the customs, traditions and thoughts that are dominant in the relationships between the people demands culturing the people with a political culture that encompasses all of the thoughts and Ahkaam (rulings) upon the basis of which the society is desired to be built. This means that the work targets the permanent relationships that have made the collective grouping of people a distinguished society whether these relate to the thoughts of ruling, economics, the social system, security, education or other than these and this is done via its intellectual leadership i.e. the Aqeedah. This means making the Aqeedah that the Ummah has believed in, a political Aqeedah, that deals with all of life’s affairs and its internal and external relationships.
c) The Kutlah (party bloc) whilst it works to revive the Ummah is in opposition to the corruption of the relationships and the systems and laws that regulate these relationships. This means opposing the executive body that is responsible for the implementation of these systems and laws. As a result it is inevitable that the State will stand in the face of this party bloc to counter it and as such this represents the political struggle (Al-Kifaah As-Siyaasiy).

d) The Kutlah whilst it is working to revive the Ummah opposes the thoughts in the society that are in opposition to what it holds. It stands against the norms, traditions, concepts and other party blocs and parties that are in opposition to what the Kutlah holds of thoughts and concepts. This represents the intellectual struggle (As- Siraa’ Al-Fikriy) between the Kutlah and others from amongst the people who carry the erroneous thoughts and corrupt opinions. This therefore is also political work.

e) His statement (saw): (Whoever awakens and he has not concerned himself with the affair of the Muslims is not from them). (Al-Haakim from Ibn Mas’ood (ra), Al-Bayhaqi, At-Tabaraani and Abu Na’eem).

Or his statement (saw): (Whoever sees an oppressive ruling making the prohibitions of Allah Halaal, breaking the covenants to Allah, ruling over the people by other than what Allah has revealed, and he does not work to change him by a statement or act then it is for Allah to make him enter his place of entry (i.e. Jahannaum)). (At-Tabaraani in ‘At-Tareekh’, Ibn ul-Atheer in ‘Al-Kaamil’ and others from Al-Imaam Al-Hussein Bin ‘Ali (rah)).

This is in addition to tens of Ahaadeeth that have made it obligatory upon the Muslim to engage in the ordering of the Ma’roof (the clear commands that have come in the Shar’a) and to forbid the Munkar (The clear prohibitions that have come in the Shar’a). These actions of ordering the Ma’roof and forbidding the Munkar are also political actions.

Also Allah (swt) said: And let there arise from amongst you an Ummah that calls to the Khair (good i.e. Islam) and orders the Ma’roof and forbids the Munkar and those are they who are successful (Aali ‘Imraan 104).
The first and foremost of those who need to be ordered with the Ma’roof and forbidden from the Munkar are those entrusted with the affairs i.e. the rulers. This also reflects the peak of the political work.

These are some of the obligating factors that require the Kutlah (party bloc), that is working to revive the society and Ummah, to be a political party bloc and for all of its actions and thoughts to be political actions and thoughts.

The Kutlah has to define its thought and objectives in a manner that gets rid of every obscurity and removes any vagueness. Additionally is must take extreme care to maintain the clarity of its thought and its purity and this is done by binding every thought, ruling or opinion to a Daleel (evidence) from the Kitaab, the Sunnah or what they both guide to in terms of evidence. This makes it apparent to those observing, that these thoughts, rulings and opinions are deduced from that which the Wahi (divine revelation) has come with. Similarly is pays extreme attention upon maintaining its purity by distancing any thought, ruling or opinion that does not emanate from the Kitaab and the Sunnah. So it removes that which has been attached to them in the period of decline or at any other time, in terms of rulings, opinions, thoughts, principles and beliefs that have no linkage to the Kitaab and the Sunnah or have an imaginary and falsely attributed linkage to them.

All of this applies to the clarity and purity, and in regards to specifying and defining the goals, and objectives of the Kutlah in addition to its thoughts, rulings and opinions, it is necessary to define the manner in which its actions must proceed in accordance to what is required. This means that it must adopt a practical principle for it, like: ‘That every action should be preceded by thought and that it should be for a specific objective and in an atmosphere of Imaan’. This means that the thought is first and is followed by the action that is done for an objective within an atmosphere of Imaan which refers to the thoughts that the Kutlah has adopted. These thoughts are practical and far away from being imaginary, fictitious or theoretical. This is because the thought that is detached from the action is imaginary, theoretical and philosophical and holds no real value or worth. Indeed the Muslim libraries have been filled with the like of these books as the Islamic library is the richest library on the face of the earth. For this reason the Kutlah’s thoughts must be practical thoughts and these thoughts are taken to be worked with and acted upon. In addition, linking the thought to the action, without specifying an aim or objective for the action, means going around in an empty circle and the Ummah has already been exposed to this reality. There are a large number of preachers and guides who shout out loudly to the Ummah that they must fear Allah and return to their Rabb and despite this they have changed nothing from the Ummah’s reality because they are calling without an objective. For this reason it is essential to define an aim for the thought and action and the basis of the objective or aim has to be defined and specified by the Aqeedah itself. All of this, the thought, action and the aim that is sought all need to be within the Jaw Imaani (atmosphere of Imaan). This is because the difficulty and ruggedness of the path and the force of the opposition could weaken the drive of the Kutlah and as such it is essential to return and seek refuge in An-Naasir Al-Mo’een (The supporter and helper) who is Allah (swt). This is so that the Kutlah’s hand can be guided and its foothold made firm and this will not happen unless every thought that an action is based upon is tied to the command of Allah, where every Hukm (ruling) is connected to its Daleel (evidence) and to the Aqeedah. This is in line with the methodology of the Qur’aan in respect to the Aayaat containing Ahkaam and the Aayah ends by connecting the command to Allah (swt) and with a description that the ruling dictates.

So for example Allah (swt) stated: And the male thief and female thief, cut off their hands as a r ecompense for what they have earned, a punishment from Allah and Allah is ‘Azeezun Hakeem (Al-Maa’idah 38).

This means that the thought, the action, the objective, the manner of reaching it and the principle from which they spring from are all put down similar to an engineering plan or blueprint. Its principle is the Aqeedah and it specifies the shape of the building and the manner of how it is established just like the work of the architect. This is because when he decides to build a building (i.e. when he specifies his objective), he lays down an engineering plan which is like a map that makes clear to him the nature of the land that he wants to build upon. It then makes clear the shape of the building internally and externally, the floors and wings that it will contain in addition to what he needs in terms of materials and how much it will all cost.

So when the Aqeedah has specified that it is obligatory for it (the Aqeedah) to be established within the reality of life and the Kutlah then commits to this objective, it becomes necessary for the Kutlah to possess a complete awareness of this objective. This is so that it can transfer this awareness to the Ummah and so that the Ummah can be elevated as a whole, work towards realising this objective and sense the progress of this work along the path. It is not permitted for the Kutlah to overlook its clarity or to confine it within the breasts of its leadership but rather it is essential to present that objective in its generalities and partialities in front of the eyes of the Ummah so it is made feasible to all of those who are working for it, supporting it and the people as a whole. These are those who we want to move towards this objective, so that they can be acquainted with it and understand it whilst it is not allowed for them to be kept in the dark or for it to be over general. So for example, in the case where it is stated that the objective is to build the Ummah and resume the Islamic way of life and that this will absolutely not come except by the establishment of the Islamic State. This statement is general and is not sufficient as it is necessary for the Kutlah and the Ummah along with her to have awareness in regards to the meaning of building the Ummah and reviving her. This occurs by clarifying this meaning and explaining it to the people and this meaning is summed up as the Ummah’s possession of an intellectual principle (or basis) and a productive method of thinking. And when we say: ‘The resumption of the Islamic way of life’ it is necessary to explain this statement clearly and what we mean by it i.e. that we as an Ummah return once again to the ruling by Islam over the people’s internal and external relationships. It means returning to the implementation and application of Islam as it was implemented from the time of the Messenger (saw) until the last part of the Khilafah. Its process is one of resuming a life that had halted and it is not a new issue that is sought to be brought but rather the issue is one of resuming a life that has already passed by and been lived. And when this is said to them and it is explained that this will not occur unless the Islamic State is established and by giving the Bay’ah (pledge) to the Khaleefah, then it is necessary to make this objective clear and to make clear the consequences and results of its existence in regards to the existence of Islam within the reality of life and in relation to the revival of the Ummah. Therefore it is essential for it to be clearly envisioned in the mind of the Kutlah just as it is necessary for it to be clearly perceived in the minds of the Ummah. It would then become necessary to define the meaning of the Islamic State, the principles upon which it is established, its pillars, its institutions and the systems that regulate it. In other words a complete engineers plan and blueprint needs to be drawn out to the point that all that remains is to put the people in their places or positions. This means that the State’s constitution in its generalities and partialities need to be clear and as clear as the sun when it is at its most visual setting.

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Colonialism the method to spread and propagate the capitalist ideology

Colonialism is the method of the capitalist ideology to spread and propagate it, and to bring it into the reality of life. This means the spread of its military, political, intellectual, economic and cultural hegemony and dominance. Just as it is the method for spreading the ideology and making it exist in the reality of life it is also a means for looting the natural resources of the lands, plundering their treasures and sucking the blood from the sons of the land. This is the fundamental method for propagating the capitalist ideology and it is the exact method that they have used for spreading their ideology within the Islamic world.

So they mobilized the armies, they made alliances and they subjugated the agents and those had desires from amongst the sons of the Ummah and they declared a war which they called the First   World War. This is when all of the states of disbelief with the exception of Germany gathered together to destroy the Khilafah and remove the authority of the Muslims. After they accomplished that, they spread their military control over the Muslim regions. They divided them first so that their power and strength would be lost in case they realised the seriousness of what happened and the atrocity that they had helped to achieve or had been silent whilst it was taking place. Then after tearing up the regions and dividing them, they then focused on extending their political control and hegemony. So they established their agents and supporters as rulers over the necks of the Muslims who proceeded to be commanded by their commands and to implement all the policies that they desired. They placed their hands over the capabilities of the lands and their natural resources   whilst they enforced the economic system that they wanted. These agents signed economic agreements that enabled them to obtain the resources including the despicable agreements in regards to the oil.   They proceeded to extend their intellectual and cultural influence and they entrusted their wardens to implement what they wanted so that the society could be built and the ideology firmly implanted within it openly according to the form that they wanted and by the amount that they wanted. 

As the culture has the greatest affect over the human thought and influences the course of life, they focused upon enforcing their culture upon the people and they put down education and cultural   curricula upon the basis of their philosophy of ‘the separation of the Deen from the life’ which represents their viewpoint in life. To speed up the concentration and spread of this they established schools and educational centres in every city, town and village. The fact that most of the towns and villages did not already have schools helped them and made this matter easier and this was the result of the bad caretaking of the people’s societal affairs by the authority in the period of decline preceding the fall of the Khilafah. This made the people warm to the likes of these actions whilst they did not perceive the true intentions and objectives that lay behind them. 
They enforced curricula that they had prepared upon the schools and educational centres and compelled them to stick to them whilst not allowing a single departure from the curricula and programmes that they had laid down. By taking a glance at the cultural curricula that they laid down we find for example the subject of Deen (Religion).   So the colonialism did not prevent the teaching of the Deen and indeed they did the opposite by making it a fundamental subject in the schools. However they taught it in the manner that they intended for the Deen so the Deen had no input in political affairs and the affairs of life but rather it only related to the affairs of the hereafter and the relationship between the individuals and their Lord. The curriculum was therefore restricted to the beliefs, worships and morals and it was not permitted for this curriculum to include within it the political or economic systems or discuss political realities. So the Deen is separated from politics and taken away from the State: 
‘Give to Caesar what is to Caesar and to Allah what belongs to Allah’ whilst bringing the Deen into the matters of ruling instigates Fitnah (unrest) and wars and brings calamities and scourges! This is because Europe suffered from the interference of the religion and it pulled them into wars that lasted for hundreds of years and they did not revive or elevate except after they had taken the Deen away from politics and the State. This was how the curriculum for the subject of the Deen had to proceed. It was necessary for those entrusted with writing the details of the curriculum to stick firmly to this principle and this is what was obliged and enforced upon the people as a whole. 

As for the subject of history, then the fundamental principle for it was to make the European history the example and model that needs to be emulated and the western personality the highest example that must be imitated. They claimed that ’In the West you have the best of examples’ whilst pointing with their fingers to the reality of those lands which are elevated and revived. So the fundamental principle and basis for the history curriculum was established upon two points.   The first: To provide a glowing and shining image of Europe, its revival, its history and it personalities including its thinkers. Secondly: They presented the history of the Islamic Ummah in the same way as the Orientalists presented it and wrote it. They therefore did not leave any incident of Fitnah that took place, or difference or struggle that happened over the ruling and authority except that they brought it out and made it prominent. They made the young Muslim feel shy of his history and would visualise the Battle of the Camel, of Siffeen and Marj Dabiq amongst others and the competing amongst the Khulafaa, the assassinations of ‘Uthmaan, ‘Umar and ‘Ali (rah) amongst other matters that made the Muslims feel disdain and contempt towards these events and even from just hearing about them. This was so that the situation would reach the level where the Muslim would not be able to view his history except through the glasses of this gloomy and dark image that had been presented to him. 
As for the subject of the Arabic language they wrapped it in a nationalistic covering so that the nationalistic feelings would spread and their pride in Arabs and Arabism along with it. They sang the praises of their glories, they wrote books and articles and regulated the emotions and feelings to such a degree that due to their ignorance some began to view that the Arabs and Arabism held a greater merit over Islam and that without it Islam would not have spread and found a place within life.

These are some of the main subjects within the cultural curriculum and they are the subjects that have an effect upon the shaping of the ‘Aqliyyah (mentality) of the person and the building of his personality. If we add to that the type of people that they appointed to implement these subjects, supervise over them and teach them, then this made the students as a result dislike the Deen as a result of the personality of the teacher and his behaviour and conduct. The students of the Arabic language would leave or indeed end their curriculums and graduated as foreigners to the Arabic language due to a combination of two factors: The corruption of the curriculum and the corruption of those who were entrusted over its implementation.
  This was amongst other matters that led to the following results and consequences and these are what we mean by the western occupying influence over the thoughts of the society and its public opinion:

a) The existence of a large number of educated people, who had been educated with their culture, believed in the western Aqeedah and worked in accordance to its viewpoint and philosophy. b) Making the return of Islam to the reality of life and the return of the Muslim authority a far off matter whilst considering the call to that as mere fiction or a kind of madness and considering the call to Islam as being reactionary and backward.

c) The concentration and focus upon the nationalistic or regional thinking and the spreading of malice and hatred amongst the sons of the one and same Ummah.

d) Putting the spotlight upon democracy and making it the goal that is called for and the aim that is worked for to achieve.

e) The spread of the ideas of freedom, general freedoms under slogans such as ‘Freedom, justice and equality’.

f) The spread of various forms of socialist thoughts and what is attached to them in terms of meanings and interpretations.

g) And to satisfy the Muslims and mislead them they focused their viewpoints towards understanding the society as being made up of and consisting of individuals. So the call to return to Allah by the self reformation of the individual spread under the slogan ‘Reform the individual and the society will be reformed’! This was accompanied by calls to gain closeness to Allah through acts of worship, recommended acts of obedience and praiseworthy morals. As a result of this many charitable, religious and moral associations were established upon this basis.

h) The prohibition of political work upon the Muslim due to considering politics as deceit and hypocrisy whilst Islam is upright and clear and as such Islam and politics do not meet and mix. In addition they distanced from the minds of the Muslims that politics in Islam means the taking care of the affairs of the people domestically and externally.

i) Reliance upon the foreigner to reach goals and achieve results. This was in addition to the spread of defeatist thoughts and declined opinions like their misleading statements: In respect to the Noble Aayah:
O you who have believed, upon you is [responsibility for] yourselves (Al-Maa’idah 105).

They took the meaning: Apathy and indifference to what happens in the public and general life.

The Arab proverb: ‘The hand which you cannot resist, kiss it in submission, and then pray that it may be broken’. Which carries the meaning: Submit to injustice and only resist it with empty hopes.

The expression: ‘The month in which you do not have in it a reward, do not count its days’. This expresses the meaning of apathy towards the public life i.e. there is nothing that you can do to change it.

The expression: ‘The palm does not exchange blows with the punch (fist)’. This reflects defeat and cowardice.

The expression: ‘It is not Halaal (permissible) for the Muslim to humiliate himself and confronting the ruler is humiliation’. This means that the political work is prohibited.

The expression: ‘Approach the dog by his mouth so that I can take my requirement from him’. This reflects weakness and hypocrisy.

The expression: ‘Contentment with the state of the reality if it is not what you desire...’. An expression to accept the reality of being subservient.

The expression: ‘Take and demand’. An expression reflecting the acceptance of partial solutions.

The principle: ‘The middle solution’. A western style used to solve problems built upon their Aqeedah.

These are a selection of opinions and thoughts amongst many that poisoned the society and were absorbed into the minds of the people until they became the measure for their actions and the principles for their thought. It therefore became necessary upon the one desiring revival to work to remove these effects, cleanse the brains and distance these defilements so that the purity can return to the Ummah and so that its mentality can be built upon the correct ideological bases.

As for the effect of the occupation upon the collective’s (i.e. the society) sentiments:

They were able to sow the seeds of nationalism, regionalism, racism, tribalism, clanism, madhabiyah and sectarianism. They found a fertile soil that grew and developed quickly and set alight feelings of hostility and hatred amongst the people. This was the tool by which they were able to gain control over everyone and they would feed all of the factions in line with their famous principle: ‘Divide and rule’. The Ummah became many nations and a single people became many peoples and a single society became societies fashioned upon their desires and the feelings and sentiments of the people would not be agitated except in the way that had been drawn out for them to. This is from one angle and from another, they made their (the western colonist) personality the ideal and model personality within the breasts of the people and they made their lands and history the image of what the people look up to in awe of their greatness and majesty. They did this until it reached the extent that those who had been cultured with their culture and who believed in their belief proceeded along with the colonizer. They were imprinted with the colonizer’s thoughts and as a result they became strangers in their society, they would look at their people in scorn and their Ummah in contempt whilst being ashamed of their history.

And at this point I will mention a story that happened with one of delegations of a group of very cultured people who visited China. They were received warmly, welcomed and were hosted with graciousness and honour. They increased their honouring of them and this went past the formalities by inviting them to their evening social activities and gatherings. In one of these even gatherings the Chinese foreign minister was present and he sat with them to honour them and to please them. He then began to talk about the hero and legend who had not even reached twenty years of age, the Muslim commander who conquered India and reached the borders of China. He then mentioned the dialogue that happened between the King of China and the young commander. The young leader Muhammad Bin Al-Qaasim said that ‘Our Ameer has made an oath that he would tread upon the ground of China with his two feet’. The King of China replied to him saying: ‘Carry my greetings with you to him and what is light to carry but precious in wealth as a present along with a bag of soil that you can put underneath his feet and then he can step over it and fulfil his oath’. This is what the high Chinese official related however the respectable cultured delegation hid their faces in shame from this story and they began to attack Muhammad Bin Al- Qaasim severely describing what he did as barbaric colonialism asking why he had felt the need to attack China and what did he have to do with China? And why did the Arabs ever go out outside from the Arabian Peninsula?! This was the result of the colonisers mentality, its arrogance and style and this is what was represented in this respectable and cultured delegation. As a result of this the Chinese Official was furious and he stood up addressing the delegation with hatred and contempt whilst pointing to the head of the delegation who had been condemning Muhammad Bin Al-Qaasim and he said to him: ‘Listen you so and so. Any nation that is ashamed of their history does not deserve to live’. He and those with him then left and the following day the delegation was made to leave China. This event was related by one of those attending who had been an ambassador representing his country at that time.

The above therefore represents the sentiments and feelings that were left within the breast of the people.

As for the effect of the occupation upon the System, then the System is represented by its constitution, laws and the executive body that is responsible for implementing and applying them upon the people i.e. the Haakim (ruler). As for the ruler, then the presence of the disbelievers did not disappear from the Muslim street until they were satisfied and reassured that there were guards present that would protect what they had cultivated. So they did not hand over the rule to their agents from amongst the sons of the Muslims until they were reassured that they were the best to safeguard their presence, secure for them their interests and implement their policies. And that they were the most capable of taming the people and shaping them in accordance to the western viewpoint in life and the western culture, and that they were the most capable of carrying the society as a whole towards becoming a capitalist society in terms of its systems, thoughts and sentiments.

They made the basis of political work in the land a struggle for the position of ruling that takes place between a collection of their agents that would not change the rule but rather just lead to the changing of the ruler and replacing him. The best evidence for this is what we have witnessed in recent years in terms of political struggles, revolutions and coups, not one of which extended beyond the attempt to change the ruler. Many of these attempts were successful in terms of changing the ruler whilst keeping the same system. Indeed it is noticeable that the systems and most of the laws that were enacted since the occupation have not changed until now apart from some minor partialities that do not go outside of the fundamental principles and broad lines, and this is despite the fact that the ruler has been changed a number of times.

We still witness today in the society how political parties and structures engage in fierce political struggles which quite often reach the point of a bloody struggle. We see the programmes, manifestos and culture that they present (if they have even done that) and we see that not a single one of them exits from beautifying their programmes and manifestos with the words of democracy, freedom, socialism, republicanism and progress amongst other wordings by which they adulate their idols and by what they believe will bring them closer to the hearts of the people. However any system that is enforced upon a people in opposition to their belief or in contradiction to their thoughts and feelings, it is only natural and obvious for it to be met by the scorn and hatred of the people and they will oppose if they are able to.

For this reason it was necessary to use the ‘carrot and stick’ policy and as such the policy and rule of repression, persecution, martial law, spies and informers were coupled with the securing of interests, trade representations, grants, loans and import licences. So the stick was in one hand whilst the carrot was in the other which added insult to injury whilst the states of disbelief wrestled over the lands and competed to extend their authority, widen their influence and secure their interests. Then America decided after the Second World War to break out of its isolation after it bore the brunt of the burdens of two wars and it saw that America was the reason for achieving the victory. For this reason America considered itself the legitimate and rightful inheritor of the British, French and indeed all western colonialism which had controlled the Islamic world prior to the war. However Britain and France decided to hang on to their presence and to hold on to their interests and influence and for this reason a hidden struggle between them commenced. So America utilised its international weight, financial pressures and its new agents whilst Britain and France utilised their agents from amongst the rulers and their supporters and helpers. So a bloody struggle occurred and the tools for the struggle were the sons of the Ummah, the fuel were their treasures and resources and the Ummah was afflicted by the fire or tribulations and internal wars. All of which happened in implementation of the desires of disbelief and the disbelievers and under the covering of freedom and liberation.

This therefore is the condition that our society has arrived at in addition to our Ummah and this is the huge legacy that those working to revive the Ummah must deal with. This is what we mean in respect to understanding the reality and gaining a deep understanding of it before attempting to correct it and before making a judgement upon it. So it is not sufficient alone for the ideology to be clear in the minds of those who want to revive the Ummah upon its basis, to lead her in accordance to what it demands and raise her to the level and position that is fitting for her. This alone is not sufficient but rather they have to fully comprehend what the situation of the people is and what they are suffering from in terms of fundamental diseases and side issues. So how will they be successful if they do not comprehend from the ideology except its name and do not understand from the Qur’aan except its script and praise, and they do not understand anything from the goals and objectives that they are striving for except that they want an Islamic State and the return of the might and honour for the Muslims?

Say its knowledge is only with my Lord. None will reveal its timing except Him (Al-A’araaf 187).
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