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regulator of the behaviour

 Al-Afkaar and Al-Mafaahem (Thoughts and Concepts): Thoughts are an expression about a specific sensed reality that is external or a reality that is envisioned in the mind. Being present externally means that it is a judgment upon a specific reality that expresses it by any means from amongst the means of expression. So if he comprehends or realises the meaning of this thought, in other words he comprehends the reality that has been judged upon and the judgement has been applied upon it perfectly and affirmation has resulted via the application of the thought upon its reality, then this thought would become the regulator of the behaviour that is linked to that reality. In other words the comprehension of the thought has occurred and it has been affirmed (in application) and as such the thought would have become a concept. However if he was not to comprehend its meaning or affirmation (Tasdeeq) does not occur then this thought or this expression of the thought remains merely as information that is stored in the brain. The human may then require this (information) when a certain reality for it comes into being or opposes it.

However if the expression or wording does not have a reality or cannot be conceived to have a reality, or it is not possible to envisage a reality for it, then this expression would represent no more than fiction, illusions and myths. The following represents in summary the collections of knowledge that the human possesses: a) Knowledge that he has comprehended its reality in a true manner and it has been affirmed and believed in, by the application of that knowledge upon its reality, in a decisive way. In other words certainty has been attained in relation to the application of that knowledge (Ma’rifah) upon its reality which has been built upon rational (intellectual) evidence (Daleel ‘Aqli) i.e. the judgement of the human mind that has occurred by the inevitable application of this knowledge upon its reality. This can occur either by a direct judgement from the mind (intellect) like the judgment that is made upon sensed and tangible matters in regards to their existence.

 Fundamental Aqeedah thoughts fall into this category like the belief in Allah, that the Qur’aan is the speech of Allah, the belief that Muhammad (saw) is the Prophet of Allah (swt) and the belief in Al- Qadaa Wa-l-Qadr, or thoughts that are related to sensed and tangible things that we interact with which exist. Or it can be a rational or intellectual judgement that is derived from a Daleel Naqli (Transmitted evidence) which has been confirmed in origin by the ‘Aql (mind/intellect) like the thoughts of the Aqeedah that do not fall under the senses such as the belief in angels, the resurrection, Jannah, the fire and the Day of account amongst other beliefs or information that the mind decisively has certainty in and is impossible to falsify or deny like the Mutawaatir informative (Khabariy) texts. b) There is a secondary level of knowledge which is the knowledge which has been affirmed and believed in and its reality has been comprehended.

However this belief contains some doubt and has not reached the level of Yaqeen (certainty). So the ‘Aql (mind/intellect) is not decisively certain about that which has been transmitted to it and as such it is not able to deny the possibility of error, forgetfulness or that what has been transmitted to him can hold more than one possible meaning. Therefore he suffices by outweighing one of its meanings that the text allows and this applies to the concepts (Mafaaheem) of the Shar’iyah, knowledge of the Aqeedah that is derived from Aahaad (single line) narrations, the Shar’iyah rulings that are derived from the detailed evidences or knowledge related to history, linguistics and other areas in which the correct understanding is outweighed. c) A type of Knowledge where its reality has not been fully comprehended or the extent of its application upon the reality has not been fully conceived or comprehended. This means that the mind is able to envisage that it has a reality and can apply it upon this reality. It is therefore a Fikrah (thought) i.e. a judgment upon a particular or specific reality however the Tasdeeq (affirmation/belief) does not occur in regards to it which means that the affirmation has not occurred in relation to its application upon that reality.

These types of thoughts occur very numerously throughout the course of the history of human life in general and knowledge related to Geography and Astronomy are equal in terms of affirmation and belief and not believing and the like of this type of knowledge represents thoughts. This means they are judgements upon a particular reality and every aspect of knowledge within them transforms into a Mafhoom (concept) when evidence is obtained that confirms the correctness of these thoughts and their application upon their realities. This is whether the evidence is ‘Aqliy like witnessing or seeing a thing or matter, or if it is Naqliy (transmitted) when we trust the truthfulness of the one who has transmitted the knowledge of a matter to us. d) A type of knowledge where its reality is not fully comprehended or it does not apply upon the reality that it is describing and this type of knowledge remains stored in the mind as information alone.

Therefore they do not lead to elevation because they have become thoughts or concepts that the human may need in specific circumstances like to confirm their falsity or reveal their error. This is like knowledge about the capitalist ideology, freedom, democracy or communism amongst others which merely represent information. So for example the reality that communism discusses in relation to thinking has a comprehended and perceived reality however the judgment upon this reality when stating that it is the reflection of matter upon the brain is an incorrect judgment that does not apply to the reality of thinking. The same applies in respect to the reality that capitalism discusses in relation to democracy when it states that it is the rule of the people and by the people. Despite this reality being comprehended the judgment upon it however is that it is incorrect because the rule of the people by the people is not (in actual fact) realised. This is because the people do not lay down their constitution or their laws but rather it is only a specific group from amongst the people that do this. e) A type of knowledge that does not have a reality and it is not possible to envisage and see a reality for it. In addition it is not possible to study and look into it in terms of its application or non applicability upon a reality.

These are the illusions, myths and imaginary fictions which include the like of goblins, phoenixes and science fiction amongst other matters that are imaginary and mythical. The above is the reality of the collection of different types of knowledge that a human can gain in his life and whether these were gained through experimentation or imitation or by acquisition and derivation or by reading it in a book or hearing it from another person or through any other means. However when he acquires any knowledge then the origin is that he receives it as a thought so that it becomes part of his knowledge bank and even if the source was other than him. What we mean by receiving it as a thought or intellectually, is that he understands the meanings of the worded expressions and sentences that he is reading or hears or sees. He then attempts to envisage for that a sensed reality and then he attempts to apply what he has read or heard upon that envisaged reality or what it is expressed upon. If it applies upon it then it is viable to be correct or it is correct and as such it would become part of his concepts that affect his conduct and control his behaviours when he proceeds to satisfy his hungers or fulfil his wants. If however he is unable to envisage a reality for it or is unable to apply it upon an envisaged reality then he will deny it and it would remain in his mind as mere information that has been confirmed to be false or has been unable to confirm its correctness.

In addition Tasdeeq (affirmation/confirmation) has not occurred in respect to it and as such will not be a Mafhoom (concept) for him and will not have an impact or effect upon his conduct and behaviours. The reason behind presenting the meanings of these types of human knowledge and distinguishing between them is so that the effect of the concepts upon the conduct of the human and his behaviour can be understood. This is the same whether these concepts include those concepts that are about things or they are concepts about life.
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