Download BUKU Dakwah Rasul SAW Metode Supremasi Ideologi Islam

Open System Theory of Organization for School

Open System Theory of Organization for School


Open system theory

This is concerned with the dependency that exists between an organization and its environment. To describe this interaction, it was necessary to move from a static to a dynamic description of organizations. Since the environment is always in a state of flux, there will always be give and take between an organization and its environment. Allport speaks of a 'recurring cycle of events' (Allport 1962). As in nature, according to this perspective there are constantly recurring processes that are necessary for the survival of an organization.

Along with theorists within the humanistic tradition, system theorists claim that it is more expedient to study what actually happens in an organization than to start out with formal goals. Then it is only natural to look at what an organization receives from its environment: input, what it does with its resources: throughput, and what it gives back to the environment: results (output).

Resource factors can be both human and material resources - for example, teachers, pupils, textbooks, buildings, expectations and attitudes; from teachers, pupils, parents, the local community and the community at large, and more general 'structural' influences; and thoughts and ideas promulgated by the mass media.

Throughput in schools has, first and foremost, to do with the teaching process in the classroom. But other activities also take place in the school which can be looked upon as 'supporting processes' to the explicitly instructional work: planning, meeting activity, decision-making, evaluation, development of materials, communication, management, etc. There is practically no limit to all the activities and processes that characterize a school.

Results from a school are characterized, first and foremost, by what the pupils have learned, by the concrete knowledge and skills they have acquired, by those attitudes and norms which the school has helped shape, and by the contribution that the pupils themselves can subsequently make to society. The parents' attitudes toward the schools are also an important result of the schools' work which, in political terms, have significance for the working conditions schools enjoy in society.

There are a number of circumstances about schools as organizations which, in this context, are worthy of note: in most organizations there will be a relationship between what an organization receives (resources) and the quality of its work (results). The schools are practically guaranteed new resources every single year, regardless of what they 'produce'. And precisely because it is of little consequence to the schools whether they function at peak efficiency or not, it is not vital that they accommodate the expectations of their environment. The problems of the pupils rarely pose any real problem for the schools (until such time as these become a disciplinary problem for the classroom teacher).

It can be very difficult to determine whether a school has achieved its goals; likewise, we have very little proven knowledge about learning and instruction. Consequently this can easily be used as an argument to continue current practices and shy away from changes that are challenging. It can also be used as an argument against unsolicited and unwelcome criticism. And when the teachers in a school are labouring under work conditions that practically make it impossible to take any disciplinary action against them (except in cases of gross negligence), it is reasonable to believe that many schools are not all that interested in an open relationship to their environment. A number of scientists have discovered that schools are approaching what we could call 'closed' systems (Carlson 1965).

Open System Theory of Organization for School
School Development - Theories and Strategies [PDF]
$1.00

Download BUKU Dakwah Rasul SAW Metode Supremasi Ideologi Islam